Views: 53 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2019-08-20 Origin: Site
Glue sticks, super glues, natural glue,liquid glues and glue sprays are common materials in every classroom. Remarkably, the glue can be traced back to around 200,000 BC, when it was mixed with paint to make the cave drawings longer. Glue is derived from plant and animal materials and has been a staple food for humans for thousands of years.
History of glue spans the entire modern history of mankind, from the earliest development of tools, to the rise and fall of ancient Empires, to the development of modern science and advanced chemistry that has managed to touch every aspect of our daily lives. Even though regular use of glue was for the majority of our history available only to small percentage of population (nobles, woodworkers, …), today anyone comes in contact with glues no matter where they look. Glues are used in creation of clothes, shoes, furniture, transport vehicles, electronics, construction, medicine to even most exoteric uses such as police forensic tools and space satellites.
The earliest known adhesives come from simple bark of birch tree, which was used totally unprocessed in prehistoric times some 200 thousand years ago. By 5,200 BC more advanced processes were introduced in continental Europe and Middle East, involving mixture that used natural solid polymer pitch. Creation of such tar-based glue needed involved precise heating of birch bark. More common animal glue was first introduced in Ancient Egypt some 4 thousand year ago, which is earliest known confirmation of use of glues that were made by prolonged boiling of animal hides, hooves and connective tissue. The most popular uses of glue (which was very expensive and rare) in that time was reinforcing the durability of papyrus scrolls, and creating furniture for nobility. Several examples of such furniture were preserved in tombs of Pharaohs, including casket of Tutankhamun.
While glues become very popular in Ancient Greece and Rome where they were used in countless occasions (for the first time including building construction and ornamental objects such as wall/floor mosaics), they went out of fashion in Europe immediately after fall of Roman Empire. Some examples of animal glue use remained in China around 900 - 1,000 AD, mostly as tool for furniture makers and preservative for images. Similar limited use of animal glues was present in North and South America, Asia, and even Africa.
First resurgence of glue in modern Europe happened in 16th century, when advances brought by trading, emergence of science and spreading of movement of Renaissance enabled woodworkers to start experimenting with new designs that were possible only with the use of animal glues. Their efforts were applied not only for creation of fashionable furniture for nobles (a techniques of veneering and marquetry that was invented by Greeks and Romans between 1- 500 AD), but also creation of many types of wooden instruments that were impossible to be created before (many types of guitars, violins, pianos). Some other glue types that were invented in Greece and Rome was mortar (mix of lime, volcanic ash and sand), Egg-based adhesive pastes, fish-based glues and very important tar-based glue that was extensively used as sealant of wooden plants on boats and ships.
Today, the development of the glue industry is rapidly evolving and is constantly inventing to create stronger and more flexible glue. Synthetic glues, natural glues,rubber glues and small amounts of plant and animal glues are used all around us In the United States, the economic impact of glue is more than $11 billion, and economists predict that it will increase to $50 billion by 2019! Although glue is considered to be simple and universal, it will continue to be a necessary material for sustained and sustainable development in the world.
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